By M. Sanuyem. Marietta College.
Treatment of acute heart failure (acute pulmonary oedema and cardiogenic shock) First case: blood pressure is maintained – Place the patient in the semi-reclined position with legs lowered cheap 20 mg levitra soft amex erectile dysfunction type of doctor. Repeat after 30 minutes if necessary purchase 20mg levitra soft overnight delivery natural erectile dysfunction treatment remedies, only if the systolic blood pressure remains above 100 mmHg buy cheap levitra soft line erectile dysfunction rap. Second case: blood pressure collapsed 12 See Cardiogenic shock, page 19, Chapter 1. Dietary modification Reduce salt intake to limit fluid retention, normal fluid intake (except in the case of anasarca: 750 ml/24 hours). Note: the risks of administering diuretics include: dehydration, hypotension, hypo- or hyperkalaemia, hyponatremia, and renal impairment. Clinical monitoring (hydration, blood pressure) and if possible metabolic monitoring (serum electrolytes and creatinine), should be done regularly, especially if giving high doses or in elderly patients. Start with low doses, especially in patients with low blood pressure, renal impairment, hyponatremia, or concurrent diuretic treatment. If the patient is taking high doses of diuretics, reduce the initial dose of enalapril to half (risk of symptomatic hypotension). Do not exceed the indicated dose and give half the dose, or even a quarter (on alternate days) to elderly or malnourished patients and to patients with renal impairment. To avoid a relapse, resume the acetylsalicylic acid treatment in parallel with the decrease in prednisolone dose. The acetylsalicylic acid treatment is continued for 2 to 3 weeks after the corticosteroids are fully stopped. Goitre can also be caused or aggravated by the regular consumption of goitrogens such as manioc, cabbage, turnips, millet etc. These risks must be prevented by providing iodine supplementation in iodine- deficient areas. Prevention and treatment The objective of prevention is to reduce the consequences of iodine deficiency in neonates and children. Supplying iodised salt through national programmes is the recommended method of prevention. For prevention in populations living in iodine deficient areas where iodised salt is not available and for curative treatment of patients with goitre: use iodised oil, according to national protocols. The target populations are pregnant and breastfeeding women, women of childbearing age and children. It disappears more slowly (or never) in adults despite restoration of normal thyroid function in 2 weeks. Practical advice for writing medical certificates in the event of sexual violence Appendix 1a Appendix 1a. This protocol should not be used for surgical or burns patients, those with renal, cardiac disease or diabetic ketoacidosis. For ease of prescription and administration, the daily volumes and rates in drops per minute have been rounded off. Weight Volume/24 hours Rate* (paediatric infusion set 1 ml = 60 drops) 3 to < 4 kg 350 ml/24 h 16 drops/min 4 to < 5 kg 450 ml/24 h 18 drops/min 5 to < 6 kg 550 ml/24 h 22 drops/min 6 to < 7 kg 650 ml/24 h 26 drops/min 7 to < 8 kg 750 ml/24 h 30 drops/min 8 to < 9 kg 850 ml/24 h 36 drops/min 9 to < 11 kg 950 ml/24 h 40 drops/min 11 to < 14 kg 1100 ml/24 h 46 drops/min 14 to < 16 kg 1200 ml/24 h 50 drops/min 16 to < 18 kg 1300 ml/24 h 54 drops/min 18 to < 20 kg 1400 ml/24 h 58 drops/min Rate* Rate Weight Volume/24 hours (paediatric infusion set (standard infusion set 1 ml = 60 drops) 1 ml = 20 drops) 20 to < 22 kg 1500 ml/24 h 62 drops/min 20 drops/min 22 to < 26 kg 1600 ml/24 h 66 drops/min 22 drops/min 26 to < 30 kg 1700 ml/24 h 70 drops/min 24 drops/min 30 to < 35 kg 1800 ml/24 h 74 drops/min 26 drops/min ≥ 35 kg 2000 ml/24 h 82 drops/min 28 drops/min * In a paediatric infusion set, the number of drops per minute is equal to the number of ml per hour. For example: 15 drops/min = 15 ml/hour a Daily needs are calculated according the following formula: Children 0-10 kg: 100 ml/kg per day Children 11-20 kg: 1000 ml + (50 ml/kg for every kg over 10 kg) per day Children > 20 kg: 1500 ml + (20-25 ml/kg for every kg over 20 kg) per day Adults: 2 litres per day 343 Appendix 1b Appendix 1b. Fluid to be administered The fluid of choice in children is Ringer lactate-Glucose 5%. Look at: a Condition Well, alert Restless, irritable Lethargic or unconscious b Eyes Normal Sunken Sunken Thirst Drinks normally, not Thirsty, drinks eagerly Drinks poorly or not able to thirsty drink 2. Decide: The patient has If the patient has two or If the patient has two or no signs of more signs in B, there is more signs in C, there is dehydration some dehydration severe dehydration 4. Treat: Use Treatment Plan A Weigh the patient, if Weigh the patient and use possible, and use Treatment Plan C Treatment Plan B Urgently a Being lethargic and sleepy are not the same. It is helpful to ask the mother if the child’s eyes are normal or more sunken than usual. The treatment of diarrhoea - a manual for physicians and other senior health workers. Give 100 ml/kg Ringer’s Lactate Solution (or if not available normal saline), divided as follows: Age First give Then give ȱ ȱ 30 ml/kg in: 70 ml/kg in: Infants ȱ ȱ (under 12 months) 1 hour* 5 hours Older 30 minutes* 2 ½ hours ȱ ȱ * Repeat once if radial pulse is still very weak or non- ȱ No ȱ ȱ detectable. If the patient is over two years old and there is cholera in your area, give an appropriate oral antibiotic after the patient is alert. Practical advice for writing medical certificates in the event of sexual violence Physicians are often the first to be confronted with the consequences of violence. Victims are sometimes afraid to report to the authorities concerned, particularly when the population affected is vulnerable (refugees, prisoners, civilian victims of war etc. In such a situation, the physician should try to determine if the event was isolated or part of larger scale violence (e. Faced with sexual violence, the physician is obliged to complete a medical certificate for the benefit of the victim, irrespective of the country in which (s)he is practising. The certificate is individual (for the benefit of the individual or their beneficiaries) and confidential (it falls within professional confidentiality). The examples of certificates presented in the following pages are written for sexual violence, but the approach is the same for all forms of intentional violence. Keep a copy of the medical certificate (or, if the case should arise, of the mandatory reporta) in the patient record, archived to allow future authentication of the certificate given to the victim. What the practitioner should not do: – Rephrase the words of the victim as the practitioner ’s own. The only exception is if there is a risk that reporting may further harm the situation of the child. Indicate the site, the extent, the number, the character (old or recent), the severity etc. This document is established with the consent of the patient and may be used for legal purpose. Signature of physician 353 Appendix 3 Medical certificate for a child I, the undersigned. In conclusion (optional) This patient presents physical signs and an emotional reaction compatible with the assault of which (s)he claims to have been victim. In a growing number of countries, the moments have profound, long-term consequences. Making the right choice at this million people accessed antiretroviral therapy in historic crossroads will help determine the future resource-limited settings (Figure 1). Community-led initiatives are vital to expanding and (For the purposes of this framework, universal sustaining access to life-saving treatment services. Eforts to scale up treatment will need to be unwise to rely on existing momentum to achieve respond more swifly to information on the 2015 target. Tis report outlines an accountable and results- Te key elements of the Treatment 2015 driven framework, using proven tools and lessons framework are already being implemented in many learned-, to achieve the 2015 target and accelerate countries. A closing section on “making it priority to innovation and using the available happen” outlines the strategic, institutional and resources as strategically as possible.
Cutaneous project: the diversity of diagnostic proce- corticosteroids in a series of 315 patients: adverse drug reactions caused by delayed dures for drug allergy around Europe order 20 mg levitra soft mastercard erectile dysfunction treatment herbal remedy. D19380 Access to medicines for multiple sclerosis February 2014 Charles River Associates Table of contents Executive Summary generic levitra soft 20 mg with mastercard erectile dysfunction after radiation treatment for rectal cancer. The symptoms vary from patient to patient but include fatigue buy discount levitra soft online impotence 25, vision problems, difficulties walking or speaking, memory problems and depression. The symptoms often appear periodically – known as relapses – which may last for a few hours, or many months. This looked at available evidence on prevalence, the costs to society and difference in access across European countries and discussed the determinants of patient access. The result of this is that whereas Kobelt found a range of 6% to 58% for the set of countries, we find a range from 13% to 69% as illustrated in Figure 1. In some countries, studies exist that have looked at the level of access for different sub-populations. Final Report Page 4 Access to medicines for multiple sclerosis February 2014 Charles River Associates Another picture emerges if we look at the composition of the products being used. There are significant differences between European countries in terms of access to innovative treatments when we compare existing first line treatments to more recent second line treatments (Natalizumab & Fingolimod)2. Scandinavian countries provide better access to innovative second line treatments in Europe (Norway 39%, Sweden 31. Access to a neurologist is seen as particularly problematic in some member states. More broadly, there is also considerable variation in specialised neurology and neurological rehabilitation services. In addition to assisting in the management of the disease, nurses are also important as they encourage the use of new treatments. We have also reviewed the clinical guidelines that have been used in different European member states. Although there are differences in clinical guidelines, these do not seem to explain much of the variation. There are, however some countries (such as the Czech Republic) with low access and restrictive guidelines where this appears an important barrier to access. Final Report Page 5 Access to medicines for multiple sclerosis February 2014 Charles River Associates Although in most countries all first line products are reimbursed, there are restrictions imposed on the use of the medicines. The biggest impact appears to be in the delays that these reimbursement restrictions cause to patient access. We would expect that countries with a higher income pay higher prices, but access could depend on the affordability of medicines (and associated medical costs). In terms of affordability, we do find a relationship between affordability and improved access. These are seen as key tools in disease management, allowing disease characteristics in 3 Nine O’Clock (2013), “6000 to 8000 Romanians diagnosed with multiple sclerosis”, available at http://www. Addressing this requires greater investment in healthcare infrastructure devoted to treating and managing the disease. It is also important that clinical guidelines are kept up to date and more importantly that they are actually used in practice. The development of goals to achieve them will ensure an assessment is made regarding the appropriate level of coverage to aim for. Some policies prevent prices from reflecting the level of income of each market, such as inappropriate international price benchmarking, where high income countries adjust their prices towards those in low income countries. These practices, as well as the promotion of product re- exportation into high income countries, which contribute to shortages in low income countries, should be reconsidered to improve affordability and patient access. Final Report Page 7 Access to medicines for multiple sclerosis February 2014 Charles River Associates 1. It affects three times as many women as men, with the diagnosis typically occurring in patients aged in their 20s or 30s and is more prevalent in Northern Europe (as well as North America, Australia and New Zealand). The symptoms appear periodically – relapses – which may last for a few hours, or many months. In terms of explanation, they found that the large variations in patients with access to innovative drugs could be explained by economic differences among European economies. However, they found that price levels do not reflect the affordability levels in different markets. They also identified differences in medical practice, the ease of access to care and availability of care. This has shown that access continued to vary dramatically across Europe countries. Final Report Page 8 Access to medicines for multiple sclerosis February 2014 Charles River Associates and look more closely at the reason for variation in access and the corresponding policy implications. Meeting the Employment and Career Aspirations of People with Multiple Sclerosis”, The Work Foundation. Also excluded were the symptomatic treatments which do not contribute directly to the calculation of additional patient numbers (Fampridine and Nabiximols). However, it does allow us to make cross- country comparisons and compare to the earlier studies. However, compared to the situation in 2008, the availability and quality of data has significantly improved. Secondly, to ensure that we had a range of different country circumstances we supplemented this with alternative data sources. The countries that passed the first steps are represented in dark green in Figure 3. Despite a covering a variety of countries in Northern, Southern, and Western Europe, there is no coverage of Eastern Europe. Norway was also selected due to information available on the level of access from Farmastat. Final Report Page 14 Access to medicines for multiple sclerosis February 2014 Charles River Associates 2. Over the last five years, there has been a substantial change in the availability of data, the differences in diagnosis criteria and the availability of new treatments on the market. Update on prevalence The Kobelt report discusses the different diagnosis criteria that affect the estimated prevalence. The Poser criteria typically require at least one or two attacks, defined as the occurrence of symptoms of neurological dysfunction lasting more than 24 hours, and clinical evidence of one or two lesions as demonstrated by neurological examination. In 14 out of the 15 countries that we looked at use the McDonald criteria for diagnosis. Polman et al (2011), “Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria”, Annals of Neurology 69. Final Report Page 16 Access to medicines for multiple sclerosis February 2014 Charles River Associates Romania, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Given the differences in the diagnosis criteria, any comparison over time is problematic.