By S. Steve. Auburn University, Montgomery. 2019.
This expansile lesion of the tibia has the signal intensity of muscle on a sagittal T1-weighted image (A) and high signal intensity on an axial T2-weighted sequence (B) order cialis sublingual visa impotence vacuum pump. This coronal contrast T1- weighted image shows marked enhancement of an expansile lesion of the right femur cheap 20mg cialis sublingual with mastercard erectile dysfunction vacuum pumps pros cons. Axial T2-weighted image shows a low- T1-weighted image demonstrates rim intensity lesion with irregular margins (arrow) in the enhancement about this lesion in the right femoral head order genuine cialis sublingual on line impotence occurs when. Chondrosarcoma Irregular mass with low signal intensity on May arise de novo in bone or develop secondarily (Fig B 37-2) T1-weighted images and intermediate-to-high in an osteochondroma or enchondroma. Ewing’s sarcoma In lytic permeative lesions, low signal intensity Primarily affects children under age 20. In addition (Fig B 37-3) on T1-weighted images and high signal inten- to local pain and swelling, there may be fever and sity on T2-weighted scans. Fibrosarcoma/Malignant Low signal intensity on T1-weighted images Uncommon malignancies that in almost a third of fibrous histiocytoma and high signal intensity on T2-weighted scans. Best modality for demonstrating extent of marrow involvement and soft-tissue extension. Patients (Fig B 37-5) intensity of T1-weighted images and high signal may present with local bone pain and constitu- intensity on T2-weighted scans. Characteristic multiple small lytic foci on plain radiographs, though a single expansile process with soft-tissue mass may occur. Axial contrast T1-weighted, fat-saturated image de- Malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Coronal T1- monstrates an enhancing mass that arises from the left iliac bone and weighted image shows the large humeral lesion produces extensive bone destruction and a large soft-tissue mass. Paget’s sarcoma Low signal intensity on T1-weighted images in Malignant degeneration (half osteosarcomas) (Fig B 37-7) areas of lucency on plain radiographs suggests occurs in up to 6% of patients and presents as in- malignant degeneration. Metastases Variable pattern depending on the characteris- Diffusion or chemical shift imaging may be of value (Fig B 37-8) tics of the lesion. Sclerotic metastases have in determining whether a compression fracture in decreased signal intensity on all sequences. Lytic lesions have decreased signal intensity on T1-weighted images and increased signal in- tensity on T2-weighted sequences. Axial T1-weighted image shows diffuse marrow changes and a large associated soft-tissue mass. Coronal T1-weighted image demonstrates both the bone destruction and the large soft-tissue mass. May have This most common soft-tissue mass consists of (Fig B 38-1) fibrous septa but no contrast enhancement. Ganglion cyst Well-defined mass with characteristics of a cyst This juxta-articular lesion most commonly occurs (Fig B 38-2) (uniform low signal intensity on T1-weighted in the wrist and hand. The appearance varies if there is hemorrhage or thick proteinaceous debris within the lesion, and the wall shows contrast enhancement. Hemangioma High signal intensity in characteristic serpigi- Cavernous hemangiomas are larger than capillary (Fig B 38-3) nous vessels on T2-weighted images. Coronal T1-weighted image shows a well-defined mass of fat signal intensity along the flexor tendons of the hand. Coronal fat-suppressed T2-weighted image demonstrates a lobulated lesion of the wrist. Coronal T2-weighted image shows deep and superficial hemangiomas in the distal thigh with markedly increased signal intensity in serpiginous vascular structures. Nerve sheath tumors Low signal intensity on T1-weighted images Neurofibroma often has a target appearance on T2- (Fig B 38-5) and high signal intensity of T2-weighted scans. Myxoma Well-defined mass with low signal intensity on Intramuscular mass that most commonly involves (Fig B 38-6) T1-weighted images and homogeneous high the thigh, upper arm and shoulder, and the gluteal signal intensity on T2-weighted sequences. Desmoid Low signal intensity (fibrous tissue) on all se- Although benign lesions, desmoids may have an (Fig B 38-7) quences that may involve parts of the mass aggressive clinical behavior and are multiple in up or the entire lesion. Giant cell tumor of Mass associated with a tendon that has low Most commonly a focal lesion involving the flexor tendon sheath signal intensity (like muscle) on T1-weighted tendons on the hand. Coronal T1-weighted Fig B 38-5 images of the lower extremities demonst- Neurofibroma. Axial T2-weighted image shows a high- rate dilated lymphatic vessels of low intensity lesion with central low intensity, the so-called signal intensity on the right. Acute hemato- mas have muscle intensity on T1-weighted images and a variable pattern on T2-weighted sequences. Axial T1-weighted image shows a Fig B 38-6 poorly defined foot mass that contains areas Myxoma. T2-weighted axial image shows of low signal intensity characteristic of a homogeneous high signal intensity in this fibrous lesion. Sagittal T2-weighted contrast image shows irregular enhancement of this soft-tissue mass, which has produced a broad erosion of the underlying Fig B 38-9 middle phalanx of the finger. Common (Fig B 38-10) In early stages, it has low signal intensity on clinical findings include pain, tenderness, and a T1-weighted images and high signal intensity soft-tissue mass. As the process teristic calcification or ossification within the mass, develops, there is a peripheral rim of low signal which typically has a long axis parallel to the intensity on all sequences. In the late stage, there is central signal intensity similar to fat on all sequences, or areas of low intensity caused by ossification or fibrosis. Abscess Soft-tissue mass, often with bone erosions, that Various infectious organisms may produce this (Fig B 38-11) generally has low signal intensity on T1- nonspecific appearance, for which the correct weighted images and high signal intensity on diagnosis requires clinical correlation. On this axial T1-weighted image, large, inhomogeneous posterior soft-tissue the center of the lesion demonstrates high signal intensity, abscess with bone erosion due to Mycobac- while the periphery exhibits low-to-intermediate signal. High-grade tumors have variable signal sity on T1-weighted images; increased signal intensity (little fat intensity) and irregular contrast intensity on T2-weighted scans). Malignant fibrous Irregular mass with low signal intensity on T1- Most common soft-tissue sarcoma in adults over histiocytoma weighted images and inhomogeneous high age 45. Typically presents as a painless enlarging (Fig B 39-2) signal intensity on T2-weighted scans. T2-weighted coronal image weighted image shows the lesion to have shows a large inhomogeneous mass. Calcifications generally high signal intensity with some areas appear as low-intensity regions in the medial aspect of inhomogeneity. Calcifications appear as areas of low as a slow-growing, often-painful mass near a joint. There may be Metastases are present in about 25% of patients at a cystic appearance with fluid-fluid levels. Rhabomyosarcoma Mass that often has poorly defined margins and Most common soft-tissue mass in children under (Fig B 39-4) low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and age 15, but also frequently occurs in adolescents high signal intensity (may be inhomogeneous) and young adults. Most common locations (in decreasing order of frequency) are the head, neck, genitourinary tract, retroperitoneum, and extremities. Peripheral nerve tumors Irregular mass with signal inhomogeneity on About half occur in patients with neurofibroma- (Fig B 39-5) T2-weighted images.
The characteristic mottled discount cialis sublingual 20 mg without a prescription erectile dysfunction doctors fort worth, “Swiss of the liver (they do not interfere with hepatic func- cheese” nephrogram is due to the presence tions) cialis sublingual 20mg with amex erectile dysfunction treatment injection cost. About 10% have one or more saccular of innumerable lucent cysts of various sizes (berry) aneurysms of the cerebral arteries (may rup- throughout the kidneys purchase 20 mg cialis sublingual overnight delivery statistics on erectile dysfunction. Plaques of calcification ture and produce fatal subarachnoid hemor- occasionally occur in cyst walls. Smooth cortical kidneys, renal failure, and maldevelopment of in- margins (unlike the adult form). In the childhood form, renal cient renal function, urography results in a abnormality is usually milder but is associated nephrogram with a streaky pattern of alter- with severe congenital hepatic fibrosis and portal nating dense and lucent bands reflecting contrast hypertension. Renal function demonstrate small, smoothly rounded calculi is preserved, though tubular stasis predisposes to occurring in clusters or in a fan-like arrange- calculus formation and pyelonephritis. Generally ment in the papillary tip of one or more renal asymptomatic, except when medullary calculi pyramids. Most common cause individual cysts may become slightly opaque of an abdominal mass in the newborn. Other man- during urography to produce the cluster- ifestations include an atretic ureter with a blind of-grapes sign (round lucent cysts separated proximal end (on retrograde pyelography) and from each other by slightly opacified septa). Ultra- Usually there is compensatory hypertrophy of sound can differentiate the disorganized pattern the contralateral kidney. Excretory urogram in a young boy with large, palpable abdominal masses demon- strates renal enlargement with characteristic streaky densities leading to the calyceal tips. Possible causes include a parenchymal cyst drain- (pyelogenic cyst) Delayed urographic opacification occurs by ret- ing into a calyx, a ruptured cortical abscess, and di- rograde filling through a narrow channel that latation of a renal tubule or the blind end of a typically arises from a calyceal fornix. A number of cysts (often very small) in the corti- large medullary cyst may produce a sharply de- comedullary junction and medulla. Multilocular cyst Unifocal mass that is usually in a polar Uncommon unilateral mass composed of multiple location. Sharply defined lucent nephro- cysts of various sizes and adjoining primitive cellu- graphic defect. Differs from multicystic (dysgenetic) kidney in that a mul- tilocular cyst is unilateral, involves only a segment of an otherwise normal kidney, and has no associ- ated abnormality of the ureter or renal artery. Perinephric cyst (pararenal Elliptical soft-tissue mass in the flank with up- Most cases result from accidents, operative trauma, pseudocyst, urinoma) ward and lateral displacement of the lower pole or renal transplantation. In infants and children, of the kidney, medial displacement of the ureter, congenital obstruction of the urinary tract may and often obstructive hydronephrosis. Most common clinical finding is a pal- reduced or absent excretion of contrast mate- pable flank mass (usually a normal urinalysis and rial. Echinococcal cyst Thick-walled cyst with nonhomogeneous lu- Usually a solitary cyst, predominantly in the cency. Often produces narrowing or even ob- polar region, that may have a calcified wall. There may be a munication with the collecting system almost al- permanent or intermittent communication be- ways occurs through the calyx rather than directly tween the cyst and the calyceal system. A large cortical In young infants with congenital heart disease and disease cyst may cause a focal contour bulge or calyceal the trisomy syndromes, numerous small cysts may distortion. In tuberous sclerosis, the cysts are of tubular origin, and severe involvement may lead to hypertension and renal failure. Cystic dysplasia (associated Rarely detected on excretory urography (accom- Rarely recognized as a clinical entity but relatively with lower urinary tract panying hydronephrosis obscures evidence of common on pathologic examination of the kidneys obstruction) the multiple cortical cysts). The increased pressure presumably results in malformation of the renal parenchyma and the development of numerous cortical cysts, espe- cially beneath the capsule. The nephrogram is composed of many streaky collections of contrast material radiating from the calyces to the periphery. May be multifo- points at which the centrilobar cortex of one lobe cal or bilateral. Splenic impression Flattening of the upper lateral margin of the left The impression on the renal contour is probably kidney. There is often an associated bulge lower on the lateral margin of the kidney (dromedary hump). May be multifocal or sis and atrial fibrillation, infective endocarditis, or bilateral. Chronic atrophic Cortical depression overlying a retracted papilla, Related to chronic pyelonephritis and vesico- pyelonephritis whose calyx is secondarily smoothly dilated. Focal areas of parenchymal loss and calyceal clubbing in the upper pole of the right kidney. Note the tortuosity and rapid tapering of inter- lobar arteries and their branches that is characteristic of arteriolar nephrosclerosis. Usually a normal thickness of renal parenchyma between the under- lying calyx and the overlying renal capsule. Most commonly develops at the junction of the middle and upper thirds of a duplex kidney. There is flattening of the upper two-thirds hyma in the suprahilar area impresses the upper infundibu- of the lateral border of the left kidney, most likely from splenic lum laterally. Note also the multiple fetal lobulations in the lower 4 4 remainder of the cortical nephrogram. Abnormal amounts of sinus fat may develop in response to renal tissue loss resulting from infection, trauma, and infarction. Malrotation Often bizarre appearance of the renal paren- Unilateral or bilateral anomaly. Vascular impression Occasionally presents as a discrete hilar mass Normal or anomalous arteries and veins and their without producing a characteristic extrinsic de- major or peripheral branches. Tomography with the patient in an oblique position usually shows that the mass has disappeared; in equivocal cases, renal arteriography may be re- quired. Lobular mass projecting from the kidney in the region of the infrahilar area represents a cortical pseudotumor. Unusual-shaped spleen, accessory spleen, gallblad- shadows der, fluid-filled duodenal bulb, or gastric fundus. Acquired condition in which attempts at com- (regenerated nodule) pensatory hypertrophy in diseased kidneys are limited to islands of still healthy renal tissue inter- posed between large segments of scarred kidney. Underlying disorders include chronic pyelonephri- tis, glomerulonephritis, trauma, and ischemia. Usually due to a ureteral calculus or and decreased excretion of contrast material blood clot and associated with symptoms of into a dilated (hydronephrotic) collecting sys- ureteral colic. Once normal blood pressure is restored, there is rapid pelvocalyceal opacification and a return to normal nephrographic density. Most commonly an adverse reaction to contrast material during urography (kidney size decreased compared to scout film). Acute tubular necrosis Bilateral immediate and persistent dense Causes include severe ischemia (shock, crush in- nephrograms (may be increasingly dense). De- juries, burns, transfusion reactions) and exposure creased or absent excretion of contrast material.
A fetus effective 20mg cialis sublingual erectile dysfunction protocol scam or not, umbilical cord discount cialis sublingual 20 mg online causes of erectile dysfunction in young adults, and amniotic fluid is seen purchase genuine cialis sublingual on line erectile dysfunction drugs staxyn, which results ultimately in fetal demise. Good prognosis metastatic disease has distant metastasis; the most common location is the pelvis or lung. Poor prognosis metastatic disease has distant metastasis (most commonly brain or liver). Other risk factors are maternal age extremes (age <20, age >35) and folate deficiency. The most common symptom is bleeding prior to 16 weeks’ gestation and passage of vesicles from the vagina. Other symptoms of a molar pregnancy include hypertension, hyperthyroidism, hyperemesis gravidarum, and no fetal heart tones appreciated. The most common signs are fundus larger than dates, absence of fetal heart tones, and bilateral cystic enlargements of the ovary known as theca-lutein cysts. The diagnosis is confirmed with sonogram showing homogenous intrauterine echoes without a gestational sac or fetal parts. Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia—Basic Approach Treatment is then based on histology and location of metastasis. Viral organisms include condyloma acuminatum, herpes simplex, hepatitis B virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. A pustule, usually on the vulva, becomes a painful ulcer within 72 hours, with a typically “ragged edge. A positive culture confirms the diagnosis, although a diagnosis is often made clinically after excluding syphilis and genital herpes. This is replaced within a few weeks by perirectal adenopathy that can lead to abscesses and fistula formation. A vulvar nodule breaks down, forming a painless, beefy red, highly vascular ulcer with fresh granulation tissue without regional lymphadenopathy. Culture of the organism is difficult, but microscopic examination of an ulcer smear will reveal Donovan bodies. Symptoms of pain, odor, or bleeding occur only when lesions become large or infected. The characteristic appearance of a condyloma is a pedunculated, soft papule that progresses into a cauliflower-like mass. The long-term sequelae arise from pelvic adhesions, causing chronic pain and infertility. Transmission from an infected gravida to her newborn may take place at delivery, causing conjunctivitis and otitis media. Most chlamydial cervical infections, and even salpingo-oophoritis, are asymptomatic. A test-of-cure (repeat testing 3–4 weeks after completing therapy) is recommended for pregnant women. The long-term sequelae arise from pelvic adhesions, causing chronic pain and infertility. Lower genital tract infection may lead to vulvovaginal discharge, itching, and burning with dysuria or rectal discomfort. Disseminated gonorrhea is characterized by dermatitis, polyarthralgia, and tenosynovitis. Petechial skin lesions, septic arthritis, and, rarely, endocarditis or meningitis, may demonstrate with disseminated gonorrhea. Bimanual pelvic examination shows bilateral adnexal tenderness and cervical motion tenderness. With persistent infection, secondary bacterial invaders include anaerobes and gram- negative organisms. Cervicitis: The initial infection starts with invasion of endocervical glands with chlamydia and gonorrhea. Acute salpingo-oophoritis: Usually after a menstrual period with breakdown of the cervical mucus barrier, the pathogenic organisms ascend through the uterus causing an endometritis; then the bacteria enter the oviduct where acute salpingo-oophoritis develops. The most common risk factor is female sexual activity in adolescence, with multiple partners. Fever, tachycardia, abdominal tenderness, peritoneal signs, and guarding may be found depending on the extent of infection progression. Differential diagnosis includes adnexal torsion, ectopic pregnancy, endometriosis, appendicitis, diverticulitis, Crohn disease, and ulcerative colitis. This is a made on clinical grounds using the following: Minimal criteria: Sexually active young woman Pelvic or lower abdominal pain Tenderness: cervical motion or uterine or adnexal Supportive criteria (but not necessary for diagnosis): Oral temperature >38. Pelvic examination may show such severe pain that a rectal examination must be performed. Investigative findings include positive cervical cultures for chlamydia or gonorrhea. Blood cultures may be positive for gram-negative bacteria and anaerobic organisms such as Bacteroides fragilis. Differential diagnosis includes septic abortion, diverticular or appendiceal abscess, and adnexal torsion. If there is no response or there is rupture of the abscess exposing free pus into the peritoneal cavity, significant mortality can occur. Other symptoms may include history of infertility, dyspareunia, ectopic pregnancy, and abnormal vaginal bleeding. On examination, bilateral adnexal tenderness and cervical-motion tenderness is present, but mucopurulent cervical discharge is absent. Sonography may show bilateral cystic pelvic masses consistent with hydrosalpinges. The pain can be so severe that she is unable to attend school or carry on normal activities. She describes it as cramping in nature, and it is associated with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Primary dysmenorrhea refers to recurrent, crampy lower abdominal pain, along with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea that occurs during menstruation in the absence of pelvic pathology. Onset of pain generally does not occur until ovulatory menstrual cycles are established. Maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis leading to ovulation occurs in half of teenagers within 2 years postmenarche, and the majority of the remainder by 5 years postmenarche. Symptoms typically begin several hours prior to the onset of menstruation and continue for 1–3 days. Severity can be categorized by a grading system based on the degree of menstrual pain, presence of systemic symptoms, and impact on daily activities.