By S. Myxir. Creighton University. 2019.
It will aid in planning the stages of that all physicians develop basic core competencies in all of training and in ensuring personal and professional satisfaction their Roles (Medical Expert discount tadapox 80mg otc erectile dysfunction at the age of 28, Communicator purchase tadapox american express impotence in women, Collaborator buy tadapox pills in toronto erectile dysfunction tumblr, with outcomes. That being said, there can be many chooses to emphasize each of these Roles within their career, roads to the same goal. Personal refections on a career of transi- cian are the move from medical school training to residency, tions. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law from residency to practice, and from active practice to eventual Online. For example, a physician who has chosen to Respecting the lifecycle: rational workforce planning for a sec- establish her own practice and focus on clinical aspects of tion of general internal medicine. Depending on a physician’s choice of career and personal interests, they will diversify to varying degrees in clinical work, teaching, administration and research. Financial matters • identify the key transitions that are made throughout a need to be considered carefully (e. New practitioners contributes to their stress, decreases their sense of well- are strongly encouraged to recognize that they will beneft being and may lead them to make suboptimal choices in from help in each of these areas. Transition to retirement Introduction Perhaps the most critical issue in this phase of the physician All physicians go through the natural process of starting train- life cycle is psychological readiness for retirement. Some ing as novice medical students and moving steadily toward physicians carefully and thoughtfully phase themselves into becoming medical experts. Such transitions are a natural part retirement with a clear idea of what their post-professional life of medical practice and continue throughout the medical will be like. Learning to make transitions a time for refection on retirement strongly encourage physicians to take the former and mastery can be a valuable way to cultivate individual and approach; the latter is most often associated with restlessness, professional resiliency. Key life-cycle transitions Retirement also entails practical issues (fnancial, clinical, cor- Transition to residency. For some trainees, the transition porate, personal, family-related) that can be clarifed with pro- from medical school to residency is jarring and uncomfort- fessional input and advice. However, the learning curve is steep, and professional growth Normal life transitions rapid. Many medical schools recognize that this transition can Along the way, physicians will also experience many life transi- be stressful and have begun to develop special educational tions, such as starting and ending relationships, accepting or training programs (e. As with all aspects of life, fexibility, sions summarizing community resources and partnerships, mindfulness and support will make these transitions easier. One model of the transition from residency to medical practice suggests that it unfolds in four phases (Misiaszek and Potter 1989): 1. Identity: growth and development of new competence and the integration of commitment to lifelong learning and professional development, and 4. Consolidation: reaping the rewards of lifelong learning efforts and the acquisition of skills. The At a departmental retreat, residents make a formal request non-fnancial aspects of physician retirement: Environmental for a mentoring and career counselling program. Ottawa: Canadian Medical faculty are supportive of this request and note that they Association. Transition from residency with the university and its affliated hospitals to create training to academia. Prince K, Van de Wiel M, Van der Vleuten C, Boshuizen H, Key aspects of the mentoring program include Scherpbier A. Junior doctors’ opinions about the tran- • biannual individual career planning sessions sition from medical school to clinical practice: a change of between leaders and mentees (e. Demanding workloads and • identify facets of the health care work environment that schedules, being in the near-constant presence of suffering, shape physicians’ professional and personal satisfaction, and struggling to fnd suffcient time for family and friends • propose an approach to selecting a practice setting that are no longer the only stressors within the health care environ- best suits one’s interests and needs, and ment. Indeed, for all health professionals, it can be a challenge • discuss how, in any practice setting, physicians must be to maintain a positive outlook and a healthy morale. Sarcasm, gossip, cynicism, protectionism and with- Case drawal can all become an ingrained part of the health work A resident is in the second year of residency. Morale suffers, while a genuine desire for col- the resident engages in clinical practice, the more they fnd laborative and innovative practice begins to wane. Frustration themselves concerned about the environments in which rises, and professionals begin to feel that they have little input health care is delivered. Many of the resident’s colleagues, into or control over their practice and practice setting. A culture other health professionals, and administrative staff seem of blame and shame begins to form, making the work environ- frustrated and in various phases of burnout. Tragically, such struggles are not uncommon in the resident fnds time spent with patients and supervi- Canada. The resident Thankfully, we all have a role to play in contributing to a more wonders if they made the right career decision and, in positive health care work environment. Governments, profes- spite of a love for clinical medicine, is considering shifting sional organizations, training systems, hospitals and universities away from clinical practice. The resident mentions this to are all dedicated to the goal of stabilizing and strengthening the chief resident, who listens thoughtfully and suggests Canada’s health care system. Introduction Choosing wisely One of the great joys, and one of the great challenges, of the On the level of the individual career, what is a physician to practice of medicine is its incredibly rapid pace of change. Although the current situation may seem dire, physicians Advances in biomedical knowledge are being made at an un- should recognize the many choices that lie before them. Technological innovations are transforming include the selection of specialty, the nature and location of the manner in which patient investigations are conducted and their practice, and even the hours of work. Ongoing debates surrounding health care have already been made, it is still possible to use positive strate- reform, together with shifting patient expectations, make for a gies to optimize one’s work environment. Health care costs, paid Giving careful thought to the questions listed in the textbox for largely from the public purse, continue to rise exponen- may be of help. New models of management are under constant revision across Canada, and a consensus is growing that our health care system cannot continue to be sustained without signifcant Choosing a career path: Some factors to reform. Hundreds of thousands of Canadians do not have a consider primary care provider, hospitals struggle to maintain nurses • Do you require signifcant leisure time to maintain and physicians, emergency rooms are overcrowded, and wait a sense of well-being? For example, although certain specialties can be The health care work environment is never static, and regard- practised only in a hospital setting, that hospital might be a less of where one practises there will always be challenges to community hospital situated in a small town or a large urban face. Because change is a stressor, particularly when it is paired tertiary care centre. It might be an academic health sciences with uncertainty, we must anticipate that it can affect the work centre with a dedicated focus on teaching and research, or it environment in a negative way. When this occurs, we need ef- might have no university affliation and hence no mandate as fective coping strategies. If a hospital setting is not necessary or is unappealing, there are ample opportunities to establish a solo Approaches that physicians can use to improve their current or a group practice focused on ambulatory care. A group work environment include identifying problems clearly and practice could be made up solely of physicians, or could in- objectively, discussing these problems with others in a way that clude multiple health care disciplines in a team-based model expresses feelings but refrains from simply complaining and of care. There are also opportunities for physicians to develop blaming, and proposing potential solutions.
Elstein order tadapox visa erectile dysfunction pills for heart patients, PhD discount tadapox 80mg mastercard 5 htp impotence, on an patients requiring specialised care: retrospective case review purchase genuine tadapox line impotence at age 70. Pathology review of cases presenting to a multidisciplinary pigmented lesion clinic. Consensus conference on second opinions in diagnostic anatomic pathology: who, what, and The authors report the following conﬂicts of interest with when. Pathology Panel for Lymphoma afﬁliation with a corporate organization or manufacturer of Clinical Studies: a comprehensive analysis of cases accumulated since its inception. Diagnostic pitfalls identiﬁed during a study of three sicians in interpreting radiographs: longitudinal study. A pilot study in ophthalmology of inter-rater reliability in gov/downloads/pub/advances/vol2/schiff. Accessed December classifying diagnostic errors: an underinvestigated area of medical 3, 2007. An analysis-of-variance model for and performance measure: evidence report/technology assessment the assessment of conﬁgural cue utilization in clinical judgment. The Canadian Adverse malignant neoplasms: how often are clinical diagnoses incorrect? Analyzing potential harm in frequency of anatomic pathology errors in cancer diagnoses. Conﬁdential clinical-reported sur- Human botulism immune globulin for the treatment of infant botu- veillance of adverse events among medical inpatients. Physician Insurers primary care: cluster randomised controlled trial [primary care]. Improving patient care: the cognitive psychology of performance and prominence of diagnoses displayed by a clinical missed diagnoses. The promises and pitfalls of evidence- rates of autopsy-detected diagnostic errors over time: a systematic based medicine. Information seeking in primary care: how physicians and nurses: the ’micro-certainty, macro-uncertainty’ phe- physicians choose which clinical questions to pursue and which to nomenon. Physicians’ use of computer software in Should we conﬁrm our clinical diagnostic certainty by autopsies? Diagnostic yield of the autopsy in a university hospital and a patient information during clinical care. Rationality in medical decision making: a ical guidelines: are there any ”magic bullets”? Premature conclusions in based guidelines on management of asthma and angina in adults in diagnostic reasoning. The epistemology of clinical reasoning: perspectives education activities change physician behavior or health care out- from philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience. Medical diagnostic decision support systems—past, Perceived causes of family physicians’ errors. A report card on computer-assisted diagnosis—the among high-risk specialist physicians in a volatile malpractice envi- grade: C. Billions for defense: the pervasive nature of defensive tics on perceptions of decision support systems. February 22, 2006 [published correction appears in The New cognitive model and empirical ﬁndings. A randomised public- potential impact of a reminder system on the reduction of diagnostic health trial on automation-assisted screening for cervical cancer in errors: a quasi-experimental study. Measuring the impact of diagnostic decision support on the quality of clinical decision mak- J Med. Learning from mistakes: factors that inﬂuence how students and J Am Med Inform Assoc. Effects of computerized physician order entry on prescribing medicine: what’s the goal? Training to improve calibration and discrimina- tion: the effects of performance and environment feedback. February 13, smears: how frequently are ”abnormal” cells detected in retrospective 2006:96–107. Overconﬁ- evolved to deal with 10,000 speciﬁc illnesses, all of which dence is one of the most signiﬁcant of these biases. In both Effective problem solving, sound judgment, and well-cali- arenas, the ﬁrst presentation of the illness is at its most brated clinical decision making are considered to be among undifferentiated. Alternately, the general this important area has been actively researched for only domain where the diagnosis probably lies is identiﬁed and about 35 years. The main epistemological issues in clinical the patient is referred for further evaluation. Much current work uncertainty progressively decreases during the evaluative in cognitive science suggests that the brain utilizes 2 sub- process. By the time the patient is in the hands of subspe- systems for thinking, knowing, and information processing: cialists, most of the uncertainty is removed. Their characteristics are listed in say that complete assurance ever prevails; in some areas 9 13 Table 1, adapted from Hammond and Stanovich. The system is fast, asso- For the purposes of the present discussion, we can make ciative, inductive, frugal, and often primed by an affective a broad division of medicine into 2 categories: one that component. Importantly, our ﬁrst reactions to any situation deals with most of the uncertainty about diagnosis (e. These settings, therefore, deserve the closest scru- 13 situation (Table 2), and providing further characterization tiny. To examine this further, we need to look at the deci- of System 1 decision making. It encompasses processes of emotional regulation and implicit Statement of Author Disclosures: Please see the Author Disclosures 15 learning. Automaticity High Low The essential characteristic of this “nonanalytic” reason- Rate Fast Slow ing is that it is a process of matching the new situation to 1 Reliability Low High 18 of many exemplars in memory, which are apparently Errors Normative Few but distribution signiﬁcant retrievable rapidly and effortlessly. As a consequence, it Effort Low High may require no more mental effort for a clinician to recog- Predictive power Low High nize that the current patient is having a heart attack than it Emotional valence High Low is for a child to recognize that a dog is a four-legged beast. Detail on judgment Low High process This strategy of reasoning based on similarity to a prior Scientiﬁc rigor Low High learned example has been described extensively in the lit- Context High Low 19,20 erature on exemplar models of concept formation. Adapted from Concise Encyclopedia of Information Processing in Overall, although generally adaptive and often useful for Systems and Organizations,9 and The Robot’s Rebellion: Finding Meaning 21,22 our purposes, in some clinical situations, System 1 in the Age of Darwin. Thus, it may be that under certain conditions, despite a rational judgment having been reached ● Processing takes place beyond conscious awareness ● Parallel processing: each “hard-wired” module can using System 2, the decision maker defaults to System 1. Disposed to believe rather than take the skeptic position; therefore look to conﬁrm rather than disconﬁrm like the hard-wired, parallel-processing capabilities of Sys- (the analytic system, in contrast, is able to undo tem 1, System 2 is a linear processor that follows explicit acceptance) computational rules. It corresponds to the software of the ● Higher cognitive (intellectual) ability appears to be brain, i.
Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www purchase tadapox cheap impotence nasal spray. See also of chronic hepatitis Foreign-born access to care purchase tadapox australia erectile dysfunction treatment portland oregon, 56 purchase tadapox without a prescription erectile dysfunction treatment fort lauderdale, 169 educational programs for, 87, 92, 93, B 153, 183 Baltimore, 28, 92, 122-123, 190 health-care providers, 82 Blacks. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. See also Partner services Central nervous system demyelinating education of, 97, 98 disorders, 32 vaccination, 54, 57-58, 62, 93, 117, Chicago, 28, 116, 121 119-120 Childhood Immunization Initiative, 126 Correctional facilities. See also Liver cancer and discrimination liver cirrhosis age at exposure and, 19, 22, 46, 51, 82- Drug treatment programs and facilities. See also Illicit-drug users 83, 113, 117, 118, 156 knowledge of, 80, 83, 89 educational programs on viral hepatitis, 8, 88-89, 95-96, 100, 176 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. See Illicit-drug users Infectious Diseases program, 59 Exposure routes knowledge and awareness, 95 E sexual, 1, 23, 44, 72, 84, 119-120 unsafe vaccine injections, 24 Economic issues. See also Funding; Insurance coverage screening and testing, 27, 161-162, 163 F vaccination, 54, 57-58, 117-119, 124, 137-138 Federal Employees Health Benefts Program, Educational programs. See also Knowledge 5, 13, 130, 148, 172 and awareness of chronic hepatitis Florida Hepatitis Prevention Program, advocacy efforts, 153-154 186-187 for alternative-medicine professionals, Food and Drug Administration, 109 86, 87, 89 Foreign-born populations. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. See also Vaccination for also Liver cancer and liver cirrhosis Hepatitis B; specifc populations and public vaccine programs and insurance, services 128-132 acute infection, 1, 19, 23, 27, 34, 48, racial/ethnic differences, 27, 29 50, 59, 70-71, 99, 117, 118, 119, reactivation, 162 120, 121, 125, 161, 189 registries of immunization, 126-127 adults, 27, 47, 117-125, 132 risk factors, 27 at-risk populations, 1-2, 21-22, 27, 81- screening and testing, 5, 8, 13, 14, 23, 82, 120-125 27, 47, 48-49, 51, 81, 82-83, 86, 90, case defnition, 48, 50, 51, 52 91, 124-125, 152, 156-157, 160-162 causative agent, 19, 21 stigma/discrimination, 23, 91-92 children, 23, 25, 30, 47, 116-117, surveillance, 44, 46, 47, 48, 50, 51, 52, 128-132 59-60, 61, 64, 71 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. See Liver cancer referral for medical management, 148 and liver cirrhosis screening, testing, and counseling, 14, High-risk populations. See At-risk 62, 83, 85, 86, 94, 148, 156-157, populations Hispanics, 2, 10, 27, 30, 93, 116, 121, 159, 158, 162, 163, 179 stigmatization and discrimination, 24, 168-169, 184-185 85 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. See also Foreign-born Insurance coverage populations gaps and barriers, 11, 134-135, 170 Immunization. See also Educational surveillance, 62 programs vaccination, 121-124, 157, 185 age and, 93 viral health services, 6, 16, 149, 184-186 asymptomatic infected individuals, 1, 3, Incidence of hepatitis. See Prevalence and 24, 26, 27, 50, 51, 90 incidence of hepatitis at-risk populations, 3, 4, 8, 9, 13, 34, Infants. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. See Viral hepatitis services applications of data from, 41, 42, 43-46 Sexual exposure to hepatitis, 1, 23, 44, 72, at-risk populations, 2, 4, 6, 7, 32, 61-62, 84, 113, 119-120 67, 68, 71-72 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. Request reprint permission for this book Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. The members of the Committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. N01-0D-4-2139 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Institutes of Health. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Toward Precision Medicine: Building a Knowledge Network for Biomedical Research and a New Taxonomy of Disease The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: x Leslie Biesecker, National Institutes of Health x Martin J. Blaser, New York University Langone Medical Center x Wylie Burke, University of Washington x Christopher G. Chute, University of Minnesota and Mayo Clinic x Sean Eddy, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Janelia Farm Research x Elaine Jaffe, National Cancer Institute x Brian J. Schwartz, University of Washington Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of the report was overseen by Dennis Ausiello, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital and Partners Healthcare and Queta Bond, Burroughs Welcome Fund. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered.
Until very recently generic tadapox 80 mg free shipping erectile dysfunction drug, health executive and professional education ignored information technology generic 80mg tadapox with visa impotence venous leakage ligation. Vendors as well as providers struggle to ﬁnd qualiﬁed workers at every skill level discount tadapox uk erectile dysfunction low testosterone treatment. Clinical Quality and Decision Support The previous chapter describes the promise of the intelligent clinical information system, undergirded by clinical decision support and care guidelines. The increasing intelligence of clinical information systems has the potential for markedly reducing medical errors. Rules engines built into clinical software will examine the orders themselves to ensure that they are what the physician or nurse intended, compare them to what is known about the patient’s present condition, and provide a “reality” check on care decisions automatically. The central challenge these new clinical tools pose to hospital managements is that they fundamentally challenge the fragmenta- tion of the hospital experience—and an operating culture that places 54 Digital Medicine the needs of hospital departments and professions above the needs of the patient. Computer systems could help alleviate, but are not going to eliminate, professional burnout, poor morale, rivalries among professional groups, continuity problems between clinical departments (“it’s not my department; she’s not my patient”), and the potential for “dropped batons” in a complex hospitalization. Thoughtfully designed computer systems can make the practice of medicine much easier, but in the ﬁnal analysis, how effectively the right decisions are made ultimately determines whether patients are safe. Until clinical care becomes truly team based and an ethos of “how would I want my loved one treated here? Information systems will not absolve clinicians of their moral and professional responsibilities to make thoughtful decisions in the patient’s interests. In other words, changing the culture of healthcare is something we cannot rely on technology alone to accomplish. Capital spending is no substitute for compassion, patient-centered values, and, most of all, leadership. Absent the leadership, all the expensive tools in the world are not going to be used to the ultimate beneﬁt of the patient and society. One medical informatics pioneer, Clem McDonald, offered the metaphor of network computing as a rain forest canopy, where arboreal creatures (presumably physicians) could move effortlessly across the canopy picking fruit (clinical information) without the need to climb all of the individual trees. One has to wade into all those messy departmental systems (emergency department, clinical laboratory, pharmacy, etc. Finally, one has to move the information out onto the Internet and send it somewhere to be decoded and used. In other words, you have to do exactly the same things you need to do to make an enterprise system function properly. The answer to this question is simple: information systems linking departments had a far lower funding priority than the latest and slickest version of a laboratory information system or a new billing system. As we will see in Chapter 5, the Internet has become a vehicle by which power over healthcare knowledge and decision making is shifting to consumers. The real leverage for hospitals in using the Internet comes from assisting in that shift toward consumers. Hos- pital executives will come to view Internet applications as a rich and diverse toolbox for restructuring their relationships with consumers 56 Digital Medicine and reducing the cost of resolving their health problems. Equally important, the Internet will support business process outsourcing, replacing many inadequately performing in-house administrative and (some) clinical processes with electronic processes managed by others, which are less costly and more responsive and transparent to their users. Improving Service to Consumers Many hospitals enrage consumers with awkward and user- unfriendly scheduling and chronically inept and unresponsive billing systems. The only way to make an appointment or check the status of a bill is to telephone the scheduling or billing ofﬁce and endure an often lengthy wait on hold. Fixing these problems through network computing is a major opportunity for hospitals to use the Internet, but to do this, these processes need to be digitized in order to be accessible through electronic networks. Scheduling, billing, medical information management, prescrib- ing and renewing prescriptions, patient education, and dozens more processes need to be renovated electronically to make them accessi- ble to consumers from outside the organization. There is no tech- nical reason why patients cannot check the status of their bills over the Internet or make appointments or retrieve test results. At the consumer’s discretion, this record can be sent to any facility where a family member receives care and can also be used at home to review medical histories and problems. The most obvious application will be replacing the shoeboxes in which many mothers store their children’s immunization and other important health records with a convenient and easily accessible electronic record maintained on a hospital or health system server. Hospitals or doctors in other communities can then read the enclosed data if the consumer needs healthcare away from home. The fact that self-reported records do not link to hospital or physician records means that they will contain only those things consumers themselves remember. Consumers would also have to authorize their physicians, local pharmacies, and other health services locations to contribute a consumer’s medical encounter in- formation (diagnoses, test results, prescriptions, etc. An important test of this strategy is being pursued by the Cerner Corporation in the community of Winona, Minnesota, which has ubiquitous ﬁberoptic broadband in every home and provider site. In this community, the local hospital is collaborating with Cerner to provide all citizens with a web-based tool on their computer desktop for communicating with and managing their relationship to the hospital and the rest of the care system. Hospitals have traditionally been willing to outsource their “hotel management” functions—food service (to, e. These decisions were easy to justify because they resulted in increased cost efﬁciency. However, the Internet will make it possible to expand the list of outsourced services to the full suite of core business applica- tions, including information processing and technology manage- ment, billing and collections, human resource management, and materials management. Nevertheless, they are crucial to effective operations, and the failure to perform them reliably exposes the institution to market and ﬁnancial risk. Ad- ministrative and clinical software will reside not, as it does today, in the hundreds of computers at the desks of hospital person- nel. Rather, complex clinical and administrative software will be “hosted” on powerful servers in a vendor’s data center remote from the hospital. Hospital personnel will tie into these servers on high- bandwidth Internet connections through the web browser on their own computers. The complexity and, more importantly, the cost of maintain- ing, updating, and troubleshooting software applications will be markedly reduced by centralizing them in a single data center. It will not be necessary to change the code in everyone’s computer in the hospital, as is done today, to upgrade or improve a com- puting application. Responsibility for keeping the system operating smoothly and continuously is the vendor’s, not the hospital’s. The intelligence will be in the network the hospital (or physician or other user) taps into. This will be particularly helpful for smaller hospitals that could not afford advanced computer applications under the old model. They will pay for sophisticated computer applications, like the clin- ical navigational system described in Chapter 2, on a subscription basis depending on how much they use the services. Application service providers will also make it possible for large or small hospitals to share administrative support with smaller hos- Hospitals 61 pitals or physician groups on an as-needed basis.
Physicians certainly recognize environmental causes of disease order tadapox online erectile dysfunction treatment new delhi, espe- cially infectious diseases and diseases due to environmental toxins buy discount tadapox on line age related erectile dysfunction causes. Nonetheless cheap tadapox 80 mg on-line causes of erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation, medical research has focused on the inner workings of human beings, on the physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms that promote health or lead to disease. Medicine is concerned with what Claude Bernard (1957) termed the “internal environment,” the blood and extracellular fluids that provide the immediate environment in which our cells and organs function. In this view, health involves the maintenance of constant, or nearly constant, conditions in the internal environment—conditions that enable cells and organs to function prop- spring 2013 • volume 56, number 2 177 Robert L. Perlman erly—while diseases are manifest by deviations from these “normal” conditions. Evolutionary biologists appreciate that the physiological mechanisms that main- tain homeostasis are adaptations that enhance fitness, but they are more inter- ested in studying the interactions of organisms with their external environments, because it is these ecological interactions that shape the struggle for existence and natural selection. Appreciation of the physiological functions and patho- physiological effects of the human microbiome, the communities of microor- ganisms that inhabit our skin, intestines, and other body cavities, has led to the recognition that humans are ecological communities. Indeed, study of the microbiome is a growing area of research in which the interests of physicians and evolutionists are converging (Turnbaugh et al. Finally, medicine and evolutionary biology have different ways of thinking about variation. Physicians distinguish between “normal” values of traits, values that are associ- ated with good health or that are common in the population, and “abnormal” values, values that are associated with an increased risk of disease. In a medical context, this distinction between normal and abnormal often makes good sense. Many deviations from normal values—elevated blood pressure, blood choles- terol, and body mass index, for example—are risk factors for diseases that may be prevented or postponed by medical interventions. Occasionally, however, extreme values of a trait—short stature, for example—may be labeled abnormal even if they do not have implications for health. Since the rise of the Human Genome Project, physicians are certainly aware of and concerned about genetic variations among their patients. But medicine is still influenced by an essential- ist view of biology that tends to view phenotypic variations as deviations from a normal, healthy, or ideal state. This medical understanding of variation differs from that of evolutionary biologists, who view variation as a fundamental prop- erty of biological populations. Not only is variation abundant in nature, it pro- vides the substrate for evolution by natural selection; if there weren’t heritable variations among individuals, populations couldn’t evolve. The values of specific traits among individuals typically exhibit a distribution, frequently a normal or lognormal distribution, that is associated with variations in fitness. Often, but not always, the median or mean value of a trait is maintained by natural selection be- cause it is associated with maximal fitness. Only rarely if ever are there sharp cut- offs that separate health from disease or distinguish different levels of fitness. Historically, then, medicine and evolutionary biology have been concerned with different biological problems and have developed different approaches to study their areas of interest. It is not surprising that they have developed as sep- arate, unrelated disciplines. But physicians and nonmedical biologists have begun to realize that there is much to be gained by integrating these disciplines. Evo- lutionary medicine recognizes that these different perspectives are complemen- tary, and that integrating them will give a richer understanding of health and disease. Understanding evolutionary processes helps to explain our evolved vul- 178 Perspectives in Biology and Medicine Evolution and Medicine nerabilities or susceptibilities to disease and our current burden of disease. Con- versely, since disease has served as an important selection factor in evolution (Haldane 1949a), knowledge of the present patterns of disease gives insights into our evolutionary history. Analysis of the evolutionary causes of diseases may lead to novel strategies to prevent, postpone, or ameliorate them. Understanding both the proximate and ultimate causes of diseases will provide a richer understand- ing of disease. Finally, evolutionary explanations of disease are important because patients often want to know why they have the diseases they have. In the absence of evolutionary explanations, they may fall back on unhelpful folk beliefs, such as the idea that their diseases are punishment for sinful behavior (Bynum 2008). Why Our Evolutionary Heritage Has Left Us Vulnerable to Disease Many diseases cause premature death (death before the end of the reproductive and child-raising periods) or reduced fertility. But most diseases do not affect all members of a population or do not affect everyone to the same degree. Rather, individuals exhibit variation in resistance or response to diseases, just as they exhibit variation in virtually all other traits. At least some of this variation is due to genetic or heritable variation in the population. Heritable variations in resis- tance to these diseases represent variations in fitness; individuals who survive and remain fertile in the face of a disease will on average produce and raise more children than will people who die from or become infertile as a result of the dis- ease. As a disease spreads through a population, natural selection will increase the frequency of alleles that are associated with resistance to it. The alleles associated with resistance to malaria are classic examples of this process. Despite selection for disease resistance throughout our evolutionary history, however, natural selection has clearly not eliminated disease. Evolutionary med- icine helps us understand the limits as well as the power of natural selection in shaping human biology and the reasons—the ultimate causes—for our contin- ued vulnerability or susceptibility to disease. Broadly speaking, there are several important limits to natural selection that contribute to the persistence of disease (Nesse 2005; Perlman 2005). First, there are limitations intrinsic to the process of evolution by natural selection itself. Diseases that cause premature death or reduced fertility will select for and increase the frequency of alleles that are associated with disease resistance. New alleles can enter populations either by mutation or by gene flow from other populations of the same species. Once these alleles enter a popula- tion, their fate is determined by genetic drift (changes in allele frequency due to random sampling in the transmission of alleles from one generation to the next) as well as by natural selection. These other evolutionary processes may counter- act the effects of selection by introducing or increasing the frequency of alleles spring 2013 • volume 56, number 2 179 Robert L. For these and other genetic reasons, ben- eficial alleles—specifically, alleles associated with disease resistance or a decreased risk of disease—may not spread or become fixed in a population. Natural selection increases the frequency of traits that enhance reproductive fitness. If diseases do not decrease reproductive success, there will not be selection for resistance to them. Diseases of aging—diseases that increase in prevalence after the end of our reproductive and child-raising years—are one class of diseases that may not significantly decrease fitness. Evolutionary life his- tory theory and the evolutionary theory of aging provide a framework for understanding and, possibly, postponing these diseases. Even when selection is intense, allele fre- quencies in populations change only gradually over many generations. The other species with which we interact, and especially the pathogens or parasites that infect us and cause disease, constitute an important and rapidly changing component of our environment.
Precautions – Do not apply to mucous membranes order tadapox 80 mg line best male erectile dysfunction pills over the counter, wounds or burns: it is painful buy tadapox toronto erectile dysfunction vascular disease, irritating and slows the healing process order tadapox overnight are erectile dysfunction drugs tax deductible. Remarks – Ethanol can be used for disinfection of non-critical medical items (items that are in contact with intact skin only) that are not soiled by blood or other body fluids. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – May cause: local allergic reaction (rare). However, preferably use the cream on moist lesions and the ointment on dry and scaly lesions. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Use with caution and under medical supervision in children under 2 years. The first signs of poisoning after accidental ingestion are gastrointestinal disturbances (vomiting, diarrhoea). Preventive treatment of non- infected persons is ineffective and increases the risk of resistance. As a precaution, this product should not be used in humans if an alternative is available. Therapeutic action – Antifungal, weak antiseptic, drying agent Indications – Oropharyngeal candidiasis, mammary candidiasis in nursing mothers – Certain wet skin lesions (impetigo, dermatophytosis oozing lesions) Presentation – Powder to be dissolved Preparation – Dissolve 2. Use – 2 applications/day for a few days Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not apply to wounds or ulcerations. In the event of mammary candidiasis, clean the breast before nursing and apply cream after nursing. Remarks – For the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis, miconazole cream may complement, but does not replace, treatment with clotrimazole or nystatin vaginal tablets. Therapeutic action – Antibacterial Indications – localized non bullous impetigo (less than 5 lesions in a single area) Presentation – 2% ointment, tube Dosage and duration – Child and adult: 3 applications/day for 7 days, to clean and dry skin The patient should be reassessed after 3 days. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – May cause: pruritus and burning sensation; allergic reactions. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Use with caution and under medical supervision in children under 6 months. Preventive treatment of non- infected persons is ineffective and increases the risk of resistance. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not use in children under 2 months (safety not established). In the event of secondary bacterial infection, administer an appropriate local (antiseptic) and/or systemic (antibiotic) treatment 24 to 48 hours before applying permethrin. Remarks – Close contacts should be treated at the same time regardless of whether there have symptoms or not. Decontaminate clothes and bed linen of patients and close contacts simultaneously. The treatment may be repeated if specific scabies lesions (scabious burrows) are still present after 3 weeks. Dosage – Adult: 1 drop into the conjunctival sac 4 times daily Duration – life-long treatment Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to children. Duration – 3 consecutive days per week, for a maximum of 4 weeks Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not use to treat genital warts in children. Use – Always apply a protective layer of vaseline or zinc ointment on the surrounding skin prior to treatment. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not use to treat genital warts in children. Another advantage is that the patient may apply the solution to the warts himself; whereas the resin must always be applied by medical staff. The skin should be cleaned beforehand if soiled or if the procedure is invasive (lumbar puncture, epidural/spinal anaesthesia, etc. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not use with other antiseptics such as chlorhexidine (incompatibility) or mercury compounds (risk of necrosis). Use – Antiseptic hand wash Wet hands; pour 5 ml of solution, rub hands for 1 min; rinse thoroughly; dry with a clean towel. Spread again 5 ml of solution on hands and forearms and rub for 2 min; rinse thoroughly; dry with a sterile towel. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not use with others antiseptics such as chlorhexidine (incompatibility) or mercury compounds (risk of necrosis). Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not use: • in patients with hypersensitivity to sulfonamides; • in infants less than one month. The risk is limited for good quality stainless steel instruments if concentration, contact time (20 minutes maximum) and thorough rinsing recommendations are respected. Caution: some formulations used for disinfecting floors contain additives (detergents, colouring, etc. Remarks – Tetracycline eye ointment replaces silver nitrate 1% eye drops for the prevention of neonatal conjunctivitis. When systemic treatment cannot be given immediately, apply tetracycline eye ointment to both eyes every hour until ceftriaxone is available. Remarks – Storage: below 25°C – Once the ointment has been exposed to a high temperature the active ingredients are no longer evenly distributed: the ointment must be homogenized before using. In any case, national pharmaceutical policies and regulations must be taken into account when implementing pharmaceutical activities. Selection of essential medicines Most countries have a national list of essential medicines. The list of selected drugs is drawn in accordance with pre-established standardised therapeutic regimens. This offers two major advantages: – better treatments due to more rational use of a restricted number of essential drugs; – economic and administrative improvements concerning purchasing, storage, distribution and control. In most cases, one form/strength for adults and one paediatric form/strength are sufficient. This classification presents a certain pedagogical advantage but cannot be used as the basis of a storage arrangement system (e. Médecins Sans Frontières recommends a storage arrangement system according to the route of administration and in alphabetical order. Drugs are divided into 6 classes and listed in alphabetical order within each class: – oral drugs – injectable drugs – infusion fluids – vaccines, immunoglobulins and antisera – drugs for external use and antiseptics – disinfectants This classification should be used at every level of a management system (order forms, stock cards, inventory lists, etc. Levels of use More limited lists should be established according to the level of health structures and competencies of prescribers. Restricted lists and the designation of prescription and distribution levels should be adapted to the terminology and context of each country. Quantitative evaluation of needs when launching a programme Once standard therapeutic regimens and lists of drugs and supplies have been established, it is possible to calculate the respective quantities of each product needed from the expected number of patients and from a breakdown of diseases. Quantities calculated may differ from those corresponding to true needs or demands (this can be the case when the number of consultations increases or when prescribers do not respect proposed therapeutic regimens). Afterwards, specific local needs should be evaluated in order to establish a suitable supply. Routine evaluation of needs and consumption allows verification of how well prescription schemes are respected and prevents possible stock ruptures. Layout of a pharmacy Whether constructing a building, converting an existing building, central warehouse or health facility pharmacy, the objectives are the same only the means differ.
An example of confused thinking about the diet-heart hypothesis was provided by the National Institutes of Health 86 Consensus Conference on Lowering Blood Cholesterol 87 and in an accompanying editorial order tadapox discount impotence with condoms. On the one hand the editorialist admitted that: It needs to be recognised that we do not [emphasis in origi- nal] yet know the cause(s) of atherosclerosis [and that] it is difficult to accept on purely scientific grounds that there is conclusive proof of efficacy of reduction of mild to mod- erate hypercholesterolemia order tadapox american express erectile dysfunction doctor in columbus ohio. And he added order tadapox 80mg with mastercard causes of erectile dysfunction in 30s, that even if the claims of health promotionists were true, The unpalatable fact remains that those who benefit will be a minority while those who are inconvenienced are the 89 majority. One of the characteristic features of coercive dietary cam- paigns is that no one asks the consumer what he wants, pre- sumably because the consumer would not know what is good for him. But if everyone were allowed to eat what they wanted, pace Levin, would that not lead to anarchy? This is correct, as no proof existed, but that did not stop the Committee making recommendations for the whole population over the age of five. What impact, if any, have dietary campaigns had on popu- lation cholesterol levels? From the results of the National Food Surveys it would seem that Britons eat less eggs, only half as much butter as 10 years ago, their sugar consumption 90 Lifestylism has gone down, they drink more low-fat milk and the pro- portion of polyunsaturated fats in their diet has increased. Yet, despite all these efforts of brainwashed Britons, popu- 95 lation plasma cholesterol remained the same. In fact, recommended cholesterol-lowering diets were shown, in a review of all controlled trials, to have 97 no demonstrable effect. There is no scientific evidence to justify recommendations to reduce cholesterol intake to less than 300 mg a day. This is a completely arbitrary figure; even at a consumption level of 1500 mg a day, serum cholesterol rises by an average of 10 per cent in some tested subjects, and over longer periods it tends to return to genetically determined levels. Four separ- ate studies failed to show any relationship between egg con- sumption (the main source of dietary cholesterol) and serum 98 cholesterol. Blood cholesterol for practical purposes has no predictive 100 value for the risk of a future heart attack in the individual, and manipulation of blood cholesterol with diet or drugs has no effect on overall mortality, though it may significantly 101 increase the risk of cancer death. First, it implied that a cholesterol level, say, of 210 is more dangerous than a level 200. Thirdly, it implied that it is desirable for people to strive to have their cholesterol reduced to or below 200 mg/dl. The fact is that there is no evidence that moderate drinking leads to dangerously high blood pressure and that it is linked to stroke of any kind. Similarly, in a study of 87,500 nurses, the risk of stroke was lower at all levels of drinking than in teetotal- 106 lers. The general protective effect of alcohol against heart 107 disease is well documented in many studies, both in men and women, yet health promotionists find it somewhat embarrassing to mention it. A double brandy before going to bed, or a half-bottle of a good wine with lunch a day could be better preventive medicine than all the cholesterol guidelines combined. There is no doubt that the Spaniards, the French, the Italians or the Greeks enjoy their cuisine, their drinks and F amour. The simplistic reasoning behind this idea could be sketched as follows: in Mediterranean countries the mortality from coronary heart disease is lower, much lower, than in Britain. As often happens with single- issue fanatics, they conveniently forget that people in the Mediterranean region do not on average live any longer than the British; they simply die of something else, or, to be pre- cise, something else appears on their death certificates. The life expectancy at birth for English men in 1988 was 73 years, the same as in France or Italy. The Chinese population has been presented as an example of what could be achieved in the Western countries as regards blood cholesterol. Chinese peasants were said to have very low blood cholesterol levels and very low mortality from 108 heart disease. What we were not told was how long they live, but nearly half of all their deaths were from cancer. There was little difference in overall mortality in those with the lowest cholesterol and those with the highest cholesterol. The test for any dietary guru is to ask him this simple question: if you are really so concerned about heart disease prevention, do you eat Japanese food yourself and do you recommend it to your friends? The truth is that the hypothesis of the caus- ation of heart disease is unproved, untestable because unfalsi- fiable, extremely complex, on occasions misinterpreted and 113 some of it contradictory. A glimpse into the workings of expert committees was provided by Nevin Scrimshaw: Reviewing personal experience as a participant in dozens of expert, technical, and advisory committees over the past 20 years, I am impressed that the most dogmatic and out- spoken committee members on any issue may turn out subsequently to have been mistaken on that issue. There have also been occasions when a strong and persistent dis- senter has been proved to be right. We need constantly to remind ourselves that neither individuals nor committees are infallible, and that all scientific issues need to be 117 addressed with some humility. A warning not to take official dietary guide- lines too seriously was given by two nutrition specialists in 11 an article in The Lancet. Improbable arguments were put forward to implicate fat and sugar in death, such as comparing fat and sugar consumption 121 in Britain 200 years ago with the present. That the lon- gevity and the health of people had dramatically improved during the same interval did not seem to enter the equation. At one point the experts simply invented the fact that in Japan, mor- 123 tality from heart disease was progressively increasing and in China, used as an example of how low one could get in the national cholesterol level, heart disease was among the 124 three leading causes of death. The old cholesterol canard was revived and it was urged that nowhere in the world should one eat more than 300 mg of cholesterol a day. Once they passed puberty they could forget meat as their brain development was complete. The horror of salt was again reiterated and as a throw-away 128 it mentioned that salt could cause stomach cancer. The new lower limits for recommended intake of fat, satu- rated fat and cholesterol were set at 15 per cent, nought per cent and nought per cent, respectively. Yet it was the dietary propaganda of the same experts which had advocated polyunsaturates in the first place. The report called on every institution worthy of its name to employ all possible means to disseminate the message. The ministry of health in countries where the government controls the radio and television should take steps to ensure 98 Lifestylism that other sections of the mass media. It is also recommended that governments recruit specialists in behavioral manipulation who can assess the 130 best way of amplifying the community action. While wars, disease and famine rage, the loyal citizens of the Health-for- All-by-the Year-2000 Utopia will be instructed by the Minis- try of True Lifestyle to measure the amount of fibre in their food and to weigh their bulky stools. But many thought the same about the societies described by Zamyatin, Huxley and Orwell. In the 1950s, there were 12 wars world-wide; in the 1970s, 32; in the 1980s, 40, and in 1992,52. The solipsistic nar- cissism of a jogger may serve as a metaphor for man running away from his own image.