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During the workshops using interactive teaching methods advisable to try to ensure the dominance of the actual content of the future specialist in conditional gameplay generic 75mg triamterene free shipping blood pressure chart to record, which is an essential factor mastering each player their role discount triamterene 75 mg with visa arteriogenesis. Interactive character practical classes provided means introducing elements of the training buy 75mg triamterene overnight delivery pulse pressure stroke volume relationship. Training primary purpose during the active cooperation of its members to develop, fully disclose potential personal professional opportunities of students. On the basis of interviews with students and teachers, we can establish a special role in ensuring the design of the complex nature of all participants in the training sessions to obtain educational products for a certain period of time. The basic interactive teaching methods in teaching literature recognized: conversation, discussion, game method, case method, projects and training. An interactive teaching methodology based on the approach centrobanca on the student that gives the opportunity to update the knowledge, the experience of all the participants, to exchange him. This approach makes learning active, which facilitates the absorption of the material, making this process conscious and therefore more effective. Interactive teaching methods are part of a student-centered learning, contributing to the socialization, awareness of themselves as part of the team, its role and potential. Interactive teaching methods contribute to the organization of cognitive activity of a predictable goal - to create a comfortable learning environment in which every student feels his success, intellectual ability. Realization of interactive teaching methods when preparing future professionals promote pedagogical conditions: compliance with the principles of teaching learning readiness of teachers to the innovation, development of teaching materials. The problem of intensification of students‘ scientific cognitive activity in the process of humanitarian disciplines studying is in the centre of the scientists‘ attention, gains significant importance. To ground the pedagogical terms of the іntensification of students‘ cognitive activity Materials and methods. In the results of scientific literature studying and analysis we consider that pedagogical environment for cognitive activity of students intensification – is the pedagogical environment directed by the teacher, system of pedagogical methods, pedagogical interactions complex. In this system, in the context of humanitarian disciplines teaching, it is reasonable to determine the following: democratic relationships between educational process participants; professional orientation providing; interactive methods of education implementation (teaching methods in the game form, methods of critical thinking, projects methods). Realization of above mentioned pedagogical terms in the process of future specialists training in the course humanitarian disciplines teaching allows to form and develop such personal skills as: creativity, capability for studying, purposefulness in the cognitive activity process. With the aim of possibilities creation for individual approach in the process of humanitarian disciplines teaching, it is reasonable to implement into life ―pedagogical optimism‖ principles, to plan and use at auditory classes such methods of teaching which help to create the situation of success during the educational process. Among them: – the ―method of not interfering‖ – it helps to reach maximal self-sufficiency in the tasks solving by the students; – ―emotional encourage‖ – students are encouraged to be self-confident; – ―the situation of giving chance‖ – the creation of situation in terms of which the students get unexpected for themselves possibility to realize their own talents; 377 – ―watch us‖ – the method gives the students the opportunity to feel the joy due to their intellectual power; – ―emotional brainstorm‖ – the situation which provides emotional charge of self-confidence to the students by reminding them about great intellectual possibilities; – ―competition situation creation‖ – the teacher chooses a ―worthy competitor‖ among the group mates and creates a situation of intellectually creative competition under the teacher‘s supervision; –―the friends‘ help‖ – on-time teacher‘s or friends aid for difficulties overcoming; – ―eureka‖ – intensification of the students work for discovery by them well- known facts, what makes them think the problem over; ―the intended mistake method‖ – the teaching method intended for students attention intensification. The author identifies such varieties of the students‘ projective activities as informative and search projects preparation (reports, presentation etc); projects connected with creative activity (video reports, wall newspaper, intellectual games etc); organizational projects (festivals organization, plays and dramas performing, participation in concerts. When organizing the students work on the project, we advise to realize intellectual competitive system of cooperation. Thus, it gives possibilities for reaching the most important targets of education – it provides the students, as the subjects of education, the strategy of educational process and help in the process of their own opportunities development accompanied by realizing the fact that they are really competitive. It is reasonable to organize the projects presentation during the last practical class. On the ground of the fact, that humanitarian education is considered to be as the education, which forms individual culture, we think, that it would be purposeful to refer to the following most significant pedagogical terms of the students‘ cognitive activity: democratic relationships between the participants of educational process; professional orientation of the educational; interactive methods of education. In the modern transformation period of socio-economic development of Ukraine significantly enhanced requirements for quality education of future professionals who will work in the future development of our state. Solving this problem requires new approaches to the educational process and study conditions for its implementation. In light of this priority area of educational differentiation is education, which is necessary for high -quality mastering educational material, increased cognitive activity, exercise self- control, improvement of intellectual, practical and communicative abilities of the future professionals. In the context of the research problem important to emphasize that disclosure of the concept of "differentiation" requires scientific definition of "differentiation".

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Kirkpatrick (79) has compared frequency of shifting by men and by women toward responses given by the opposite sex triamterene 75 mg overnight delivery blood pressure range chart. The BeliefPattern Scale of attitudes toward feminism was administered individually to college students buy triamterene 75 mg fast delivery blood pressure yahoo answers, then to one man and one woman as a committee cheap 75 mg triamterene amex prehypertension coffee, and again individually. Although women changed their positions less than men in the group situation, they were less inclined to revert to their original position. The finding by Coleman, Blake, and Mouton (31) (see foregoing), indicating differential susceptibility of men and women as a function of the material being judged, makes it mandatory that the nature of the task be considered in future work. Duncker (38) has reported that children under two and two-thirds years of age did not respond to food preferences expressed by others, thus demonstrating a lack of susceptibility for the task employed. Luchins (89) used ten- to thirteen-year-old children as subjects in one series and male college students in another series. Fisher and Rubinstein (42) found that subjects who had been awake continuously for 48 to 52 hr showed significantly greater changes in autokinetic judgments, both between trials and within trials, than control subjects. Kimbrell and Blake (78) experimentally created two degrees of inducement to thirst: strong and moderate. Subjects then were asked to wait for the remainder of the experiment near a drinking fountain with a sign forbidding its use. Under conditions of moderate thirst, the naive subject was significantly influenced by the confederate who violated the sign. Four- to six-year-old kindergarten children were placed by Marinho (95) in two groups, one showing a preference for one of two kinds of fruit paste, and the other, with indefinite preferences. Lawson and Stagner (82) tested the hypothesis that attitude change during group discussion is accompanied by increases in anxiety, and that amount of change is proportional to the amount of anxiety. Male undergraduate college students were preselected by attitude scales to represent extreme positions toward nationalism or internationalism. Anxiety was measured by palmar sweat both before and after each subject participated in the pressure situation. Two naive subjects interacted with an instructed majority who took the opposite point of view. Attitude shifts were found to be accompanied by decreases in palmar sweat, particularly for those initially holding nationalistic opinions. Hoffman (64) used selected items from the F-scale to differentiate students with high and low inner conformity needs. Unexpectedly, both groups shifted significantly toward the false norms, with conformity producing less anxiety than resistance, although the differences were significant for high conformity subjects only. A consistent finding is that younger people are more responsive to social pressures than older individuals. Psychologic Properties of the Person Psychologic dimensions investigated have included ascendancysubmission; lack of nervous tension and self-confidence; authoritarianism; dimensions described by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory; the Rorschach Test; the Thematic Apperception Test; intelligence; complexity-simplicity; originality; dependence on the perceptual field; pathologic tendencies of the person; and characteristics assessed by self-ratings and self-descriptive check lists. Several different personality measures have been employed to assess the effects of individual differences in ascendancy-submission. Helson, Blake, Mouton, and Olmstead (63) used the Allport-Allport A-S Reaction Study to classify subjects and then had them judge eighteen statements from the Thurstone Militarism Scale. Mouton, Blake, and Olmstead (103) also employed the A-S Reaction Study as a measure of ascendancysubmission. Under name disclosure conditions only, submissive subjects were found to conform more often as a function of the erroneous reports; of others (see preceding). Both male and female subjects responded to the Thurstone-Chave War Scale initially in private and later as the fifth person in the simulated group situation.

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By its ability to adhere to vaginal tissue while retaining nonoxynol-9 in its gel structure generic 75 mg triamterene fast delivery blood pressure medication iv, it is an excellent extended effect spermicide cheap triamterene 75mg overnight delivery pulse pressure 76. In contrast order 75 mg triamterene otc blood pressure keeps dropping, the bioadhesive gel containing nonoxynol-9 attaches to lymphocytes and maintains sufficient contact time to allow the nonoxynol-9 surfactant to disrupt the cell wall, thus eliminating the lymphocyte and killing the virus within. Progesterone delivery: as described above, estrogen replacement therapy increases the risk of endometrial cancer when used alone. This risk can be eliminated by treatment with a progestational agent for up to 14 days a month. The vaginal delivery of a polycarbophil gel loaded with progesterone has been shown to allow the extended vaginal delivery of the drug for 2–3 days from a single dose and protect the endometrium against cancer. Low serum levels of progesterone were detected after vaginal delivery, which corresponds to fewer side-effects. A commercial progesterone-loaded polycarbophil gel preparation for intravaginal delivery, Crinone, has recently been launched. Smart hydrogel Smart hydrogel preparations, comprising poly(acrylic acid) and a poloxamer (see Section 16. The temperature- dependent gelling of the system helps to prevent leak-back and provides sustained release properties. Smart hydrogel preparations containing estradiol have shown similar bioavailability to a commercial vaginal cream and suppository, even though the gel contained only 20% of the relative estradiol dose. However, the low and erratic bioavailability of biopharmaceuticals via this route necessitates the use of absorption enhancers. Until safe, non-toxic absorption enhancers can be found, the route is of limited potential. A further major limitation of this route is the lack of reproducibility resulting from cyclic changes in the reproductive system. Finally, no matter what degree of optimization can be achieved via this route, it can only ever benefit approximately 50% of the population! Mucosal penetration enhancers for facilitation of peptide and protein drug absorption. Give examples of the classes of the pharmaceutical agents which are presently marketed as topical formulations for vaginal administration. Which other epithelial membrane has a structure most similar to that of the vaginal epithelium? During which phase of the menstrual cycle is the vaginal epithelia thickest and the epithelial tight junctions most cohesive, thereby reducing the absorption of hydrophilic compounds via the paracellular route? Which of the following do not leak through the intercellular channels of vaginal epithelium at the late luteal phase and early follicular phase? What factor controls the pH in the vaginal lumen at between pH 4 and pH 5, preventing the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria? Describe the types of absorption enhancers under development for use in vaginal route. Describe the possible reasons for enhanced vaginal vaccination using microparticulate systems. Research has recently been directed towards the development of alternatives to the parenteral route, such as the transdermal, nasal and other routes thus far discussed in this book, for the systemic delivery of such drugs.

The model of professional regulation advanced in our introductory chapter should therefore be amended to take into account this diversity of know-how purchase triamterene 75mg line arteria anonima, beyond the mere mobilization of pharmacological modeling cheap 75 mg triamterene with visa blood pressure medication drug test. As illustrated here purchase triamterene 75 mg visa blood pressure medication ratings, biological testing systems were not just important elements in the industrial practice of standardization and quality control. In parallel, academic pharmacists used them to perform physiological functions and make them manifest, meaning that they became tools to explore and signal the synergies and complexities that remained central to the culture of preparations. If there is a caricature of German history to parallel the image of the French industrial state, it is the idea of a rapidly growing chemical industry that colonized the entire pharmaceutical sector after the 1890s. One major interest of the history of plant extracts is to show the importance of these practices, which made a subset among German frms comparable to their French counterparts living off of the exploitation of specialties registered in the pharmacopoeia. The history of Madaus thus reveals a culture of preparation that shares many aspects with the practices at Dausse, including the organization of plant collection and breeding, mechanical innovations, a deep interest in physiological tools, and research. The social and intellectual landscape within which the frm blossomed was not the French professional order, but a rare combination of industry and alternative medicine. Madaus’s holistic approach of the living, which nurtured a system of correspondences among plants, animals, and human beings, than the integration of alternative medical practices – homeopathy, as well as the use of plants and organ extracts – into the industrial regulatory order and its values of productivity, standardization, and homogeneity, all of which were taken as synonymous of quality and effectiveness. The consequences were not only the prominent role attributed to mechanics and processing, but the mobilization of pharmacology and chemistry 63 Jean-Paul Gaudillière for quality control. As a company looking for a more scientifc form of popular and biological medicine, Madaus paradoxically engaged in the development of as many standards and assays as more molecularly oriented frms like Schering or Hoechst. The tensions brought about by this transformation of therapeutic agents previously associated with forms of medical practices stressing the individual and constitutional nature of disease into mass-produced and prescription- ready pills are easy to perceive, but remain to be analyzed. Similarly, comparison between Madaus and Schering highlights the commonalities of the industrial regulation of drugs. Both frms developed in-house research facilities focusing on physiology, both focused on biological assays as privileged tools of intervention, both invented relations with physicians and local practitioners that linked science and marketing. The correlate of standardization and quality control within the frms was a pattern of state interventions that echoed and reinforced entrepreneurial interventions (a situation powerfully illustrated with the regulation of sera) but did not constitute an autonomous administrative way of regulating. While substantiating the idea of an industrial way of regulating, such parallels do not make the differences between the innovation culture of both frms less real. Even when investigating cellular metabolic pathways, Schering’s strategy remained to turn extracts and sex-hormone preparations into pure molecules, while Madaus’s ambition was to make the biological complexity visible, relying on ecological investigations, mélanges, and the mobilization of local healers’ therapeutic experiences. In the end, this pervasiveness of industrial regulation in Germany provides a possible explanation for what is otherwise diffcult to understand, namely the contrasted fate of herbal medicine in both countries. The 1936 reform granting Heilpraktiker a legal status is usually understood as an example of profession building that mimicked the history of school medicine, benefting from a peculiar political window originating in the Nazi’s initial love for alternative, supposedly popular health practices, where healers were able to negotiate partial but effective institutionalization. Hence, even if after World War I French herbalists expressed their acceptance of a status as second-rank drug makers, the pharmacists’ corporate bodies blocked the path toward the recognition of a full-fedged profession, pleading for the 1941 ban. The need to take into account cognitive and material practices when analyzing drug regulation, however, points to a different path of interpretation. Pharmacists’ and herbalists’ ways of understanding the nature of drugs as well as their mode of preparation were much less dissimilar than what is traditionally assumed, a feature that reinforced the administrative nature of their competition within the system of professions. The fact that the German reform persisted once its national-socialist birth context vanished might therefore be seen as a consequence of both the declining infuence of professional regulation and the successful industrialization of “alternative” therapies in the interwar period. Following this line of analysis, the success of French pharmacists might well be rooted in the herbalists’ delayed industrialization, which left the former to think they were the only legitimate actors in trading and regulating medicinal plants. Hüntelmann The diphtheria serum was a major therapeutic innovation at the end of the 19th century. As a new form of therapy, the diphtheria serum marks the starting point for other sera like the one for tetanus or veterinary sera like red murrain.

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