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These calls are speciﬁc mechanisms that persons use while allowing the nurse to respond with authentic intentions to know them fully as persons in the moment discount viagra 50 mg without prescription depression and erectile dysfunction causes. Calls for nursing may be The purpose of this chapter is to describe and expressed in various ways buy generic viagra 50 mg line erectile dysfunction treatment sydney, oftentimes as hopes and explain “knowing persons as whole buy viagra 50mg without prescription impotence definition inability,” a frame- dreams, such as hoping to be with friends while re- work of nursing guiding a practice grounded cuperating in the hospital, or desiring to play the in the theoretical construct of technological piano when his or her ﬁngers are well enough to competency as caring in nursing (Locsin, function effectively, or simply the ultimate desire to 2004). As uniquely nates the harmonious relationship between as these calls for nursing are expressed, the nurse technology competency and caring in nurs- knows the person continuously moment to mo- ing. Assump- saving medications, institute transfer plans, or tions about human beings as persons, nurs- refer patients for services to other health-care ing as caring, and technological competency are presented as foundational to the process of knowing persons as whole in the mo- The entirety of nursing is to direct, focus, ment—a process of nursing grounded in the attain, sustain, and maintain the person. The entirety of nursing is to direct, The process of knowing persons as whole focus, attain, sustain, and maintain the person. In is explicated as technological efﬁciency in doing so, hearing calls for nursing is continuous nursing practice. The em- The process of knowing persons is continu- pirical, personal, ethical, and aesthetic ways of ous. In this process of nursing, with calls and knowing that are fundamental to understanding responses, the nurse and nursed come to persons as whole increase the likelihood of know- know each other more fully as persons in the ing persons in the moment. Grounding the process is the appre- ciation of persons as whole and complete in the moment, of human beings as unpre- As unpredictable and dynamic, human dictable, of technological competency as an beings are ever-changing moment to expression of caring in nursing, and of nurs- moment. This characteristic challenges the nurse References to know persons continuously as wholes, discour- Boykin, A. Nursing as caring: A model aging and ceasing the traditional conception of for transforming practice. New York: Jones and Bartlett, possibly knowing persons completely at once, in National League for Nursing Press. University, where she is founding director of the Workshops have been developed and conducted on Quantum Foundation Center for Innovation in critical thinking and competency skills for school School and Community Well-Being. Her writings include nursing values, is to enhance nursing practice and education inquiry groups for community assessments, and through nursing theory, using both innovative and cultural caring. Her current research includes traditional means to improve care and advance the the study of adiposity in children, health-care discipline. Parker received the President’s Leadership manuscript reviewer for the International Journal Award at Florida Atlantic University, recognizing of Human Caring. Parker’s active participation in nursing edu- she holds a bachelor’s degree in health administra- cation and health care in several countries led to tion, a master’s degree in nursing from Florida her 2001 Fulbright Scholar Award to Thailand. It is Atlantic University in Boca Raton, and a doctoral there that she continues to teach, consult, and par- degree from the University of Miami, Florida. She ticipate in research with Thai colleagues in devel- is nationally certiﬁed in school nursing. Her commitment to caring for underserved popu- Developing a Community lations and to health policy evaluation led to Nursing Practice Model: being named a National Public Health Leadership Institute Fellow and to being elected a distin- The Ideal and the Practical guished practitioner in the National Academies of Practice—Nursing. Parker is a fellow in the Developing the Community Nursing Practice American Academy of Nursing. Barry is an associate professor and to be a blend of, the ideal and the practical. The ideal associate director at the Quantum Foundation was the commitment of one of the authors to devel- Center for Innovation in School and Community oping and using nursing concepts to guide nursing Well-Being at the Florida Atlantic University practice, education, and scholarship, and of a desire Christine E. Barry to develop a nursing practice as an essential compo- serves on the Education Committee of the National nent of a nursing college. She has been active added commitment of the other author in bringing in the Florida Association of School Nurses since this model to life. The added efforts of faculty, staff 1996 and has served as president, treasurer, and and students contributed to the development model board member. Lynn College of Nursing multicultural communities and is accepted by local (Florida Atlantic University College of Nursing communities and providers as essential to the Philosophy and Mission, 1994/2003).
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Here’s how to administer medication intradermally: • Check the prescriber’s medication order safe viagra 25mg impotence icd 9 code. If the patient is allergic to the med- ication buy viagra 50mg line erectile dysfunction treatment for heart patients, then the diameter of the wheal should increase buy 75 mg viagra free shipping erectile dysfunction while drunk. Subcutaneous medications are absorbed through capillaries and the onset of the medication is slower than intramuscular and intravenous routes. To prevent lypodystro- phy, sites must be rotated if injections are given frequently. Lypodystrophy is a loss of the fat area under the skin causing ineffective absorption of insulin. These sites are: abdomen, upper hips, upper back, lateral upper arms, and lateral thighs. Subcutaneous injections are given using a 25–27-gauge needle that is 1/2 or 5/8 inches in length and with a 1 to 3 mL syringe calibrated 0. Here’s how to administer medication subcutaneously: • Check the prescriber’s medication order. Choose an injection site based on the size of the muscle with a minimum number of nerves and blood vessels in the area. These sites are: • Ventrogluteal (hip) • Dorsogluteal (buttocks) • Deltoid (upper arm) • Vastus lateralis (front of thigh) See Table 6-1 for more details. Here’s how to administer medication intramuscularly: • Check the prescriber’s medication order. Z-Track Injection Technique The Z-Track inject technique is used to prevent medication from leaking back in the subcutaneous tissue after the medication has been injected into the patient. This technique is used whenever the medication—such as dextran (iron)—might cause a visible and permanent skin discoloration. Here’s how to administer medication using the Z-Track technique: • Check the prescriber’s medication order. Injection Site Description Ventrogluteal • Relatively free of major nerves and vascular branches. Measure 2 to 3 fingers below the acromion process on the lateral midline of the arm to identify the proper site. Tips for Minimizing Pain Receiving medication via injection is a painful process for the patient. However, you can minimize the discomfort by following these tips: • Encourage the patient to relax. Position the patient flat on the abdomen with toes turned inward if you are using the dorsogluteal site. However, cubital veins should be avoided except in emergency situation because cubital veins are used for withdrawing blood specimens for laboratory testing. Medication may be admin- istered directly into the vein with a syringe, into an intermittent catheter inserted into the patient’s vein, or injected into intravenous fluids such as 5% Dextrose in Water (D5W) and delivered as an intravenous drip called a piggy back. Summary Medication is given to a patient using one of several routes depending on the nature of the medication and the patient’s condition. The sublingual and buccal routes are used for rapid absorption of medication because blood vessels are close to the surface of the tongue and gums. Medication is directed to the lungs by using the inhalation route where the patient uses an inhaler. The suppository route is used to absorb medication directly into the rectum or vagina. The parenteral route is used to inject medication directly into the dermal or subcutaneous tissue, muscle, or into the veins. If the dose of a transdermal patch is more than the prescriber’s medica- tion order (a) cut the patch to an appropriate length.
Accounts of treatments before this time were largely penned by tempo- rary visitors such as explorers purchase viagra 75mg with amex erectile dysfunction pump, missionaries and whalers who were not necessarily aware of the complexities of the societies that they were observing nor of course the subtleties of languages with which they were not at all familiar proven viagra 50 mg erectile dysfunction doctors in sri lanka. This changed after these countries were settled by the colonists discount viagra 75 mg without a prescription erectile dysfunction pills thailand, who spent more time with the native populations, learning their languages and observing their customs, including their methods of treating illnesses. Although these early settlers brought with them the means – mainly herbal extracts – of treating illness then available in Europe, they also began to experiment with local flora to extend their armamentarium of possibly medi- cinally active plants. They also planted seeds of European plants, either delib- erately or accidentally, and used them where applicable. At the same time, the local populations observed the customs of the settlers, including their methods of treating European sicknesses. When they in turn became infected with the diseases brought in by the settlers, they too began to adopt Euro- pean methods of treating themselves using the herbal medicines of their own country and those introduced by the settlers. As a consequence, when infor- mation about traditional medicines was later recorded in written documents there was often some confusion between those that were originally used and those developed only after colonisation. Australia Before the influx of Europeans in the late eighteenth century, it seems prob- able that Aborigines enjoyed relatively good health, despite the rigours of the Australian climate and the scarcity of some food sources. The ill-health that they experienced was largely brought about by living in close proximity to each other, leading to many skin problems and respiratory disorders. Their diet was necessarily poor and they would frequently encounter sharp objects in their wanderings in the form of either plants stumbled over or objects wielded by other people. They did not, as far as we can ascertain, suffer from most of the infectious diseases of the west, diseases such as smallpox, 274 | Traditional medicine cholera, tuberculosis, sexually transmitted infections, mumps and measles. They were therefore quite unprepared for the devastating impact of foreign microorgan- isms which killed them in their thousands, and they were also not prepared for the equally devastating impact of western society on their own, less structured way of life. Traditional remedies There are many uncertainties about the use of herbal medicines pre-Euro- pean times. Not only were there no written records, but there was also little clarity about the botanical identification of plants used, the specific part to be used and how this part was to be applied. Those Europeans who tried to find out more about the plants used in earlier times were sometimes misinformed through Aboriginal willingness to please. Aboriginals are sometimes so very willing to give names of plants to the traveller that, rather than disappoint him, they will prepare a few for the occasion. The nineteenth century settlers noted that Aborigines were well acquainted with these conditions and employed a number of plants to remedy them. The gummy exudates (known collectively as kino) from various species of eucalyptus, notably Eucalyptus siderophloia and other trees or bushes, were regularly chewed to slow down or stop diarrhoea. Many of these kino exudates have since been shown to contain tannins or other astringent compounds that inhibit secretions of the gastrointestinal tract. The wood of this tree has what is described as a ‘nauseating odour’ but its resinous exudates, when placed in tooth cavities, did relieve the pain of toothache. Many other plants, including several species of acacia, were used as painkillers for both internal and external sources of pain. A number of these also had sedative properties, especially those in the Solanaceae and Lobeli- aceae families, the best known of which is the plant known as ‘pituri’ (Duboisia hopwoodii). The leaves of pituri were chewed in much the same manner as is tobacco and produced a number of similar effects, initially stimulation of activity, followed by lethargy and fatigue. The plant grows in many parts of Australia and its use by Aborigines was so well known that it was considered to be like:. Under these conditions fungal and viral infections could spread rapidly, as did parasitic infestations such as scabies. Warts also appear to have been common and were removed by inserting sharp spines of an acacia under them and then pulling away the withered wart an hour or so later.
For example purchase 75mg viagra free shipping erectile dysfunction liver, it is possible to be overweight without be- ing obese trusted viagra 25mg erectile dysfunction doctors staten island, such as a bodybuilder buy viagra 75 mg fast delivery erectile dysfunction natural remedies at walmart. Having a greater proportion of muscle mass would make this individual appear overweight according to standard weight/height charts, yet this person could have low body fat and be in good physical shape. There are several methods that are used to determine overweight, obesity, and the level of associated health risks. Body composition can be measured by: Bioelectric impedance: A machine is used to measure an electric signal as it passes through lean body mass and fat. This method is more effective than skin-fold caliper testing, but is not 100 percent accurate. Near infrared technology: Infrared light is shone on the skin (usually bicep area). The reﬂected light is measured by a special sensor, transmitted into the computer, and translated into percentage of body fat. This method is highly accurate, comparable to underwater weighing, but slightly more expensive than the above two methods. Skin-fold calipers: Measures the thickness of subcutaneous fat at various locations on the body. The measurements obtained are used in special equations to obtain an estimated percent fat value. This method is not very accurate and is dependent upon the skills and judgment of the person performing the test. Below are recommended body fat ranges for women and men along with the ranges considered to be overweight or obese: Women Men Normal 15–25 percent 10–20 percent Overweight 25. Studies have shown that an apple-shaped body, which is deﬁned by abdomi- nal obesity or having a potbelly, greatly increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol and blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, and early death. Following are the waist measurements and their corresponding level of risk: Determinations for Body Fat and Weight | 423 For men: • Increased risk: Waist more than 38 inches (97 cm) • Substantially increased risk: Waist more than 40 inches (102 cm) For women: • Increased risk: Waist more than 32 inches (81 cm) • Substantially increased risk: Waist more than 35 inches (89 cm) Men often deposit weight in the waist region, whereas women tend to gain weight around the hips and buttocks, giving them the pear shape. Fat deposited primarily around the hips and buttocks does not carry the same risk as that gained around the midsection. In recent years, researchers have found that abdominal fat, which sur- rounds our internal organs, secretes compounds that trigger inﬂammation and insulin resistance, thus increasing the risk of heart disease, diabetes, and other problems. The tendency to deposit fat around the midsection is inﬂuenced by a number of factors, including genetics and lifestyle choices. Physical activity, not smoking, and using unsaturated fat over saturated fat have been shown to decrease the risk of de- veloping abdominal obesity. Also called blood glucose, blood sugar is the fuel used by the cells in the body for energy. On the other hand, research indicates that a low-glycemic diet can promote better blood sugar control. This healthy way of eating can also improve mood and energy levels and, over the long term, may cut the risk of several chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and certain cancers. This practice has been used for thousands of years for the treatment of a variety of health conditions. While cleansing is not widely embraced by mainstream medicine, it is highly popular and routinely recommended by natural health care practitioners. Toxins are produced in the body during normal functions such as the digestion, but we also get toxins from eating foods containing chemicals (preservatives, dyes, pesticides, and hormones), taking drugs, being exposed to pollution and smoke, and from contact with house- hold cleaners, heavy metals, and other chemicals. There is an intricate system in our bodies that transforms toxins into less harmful compounds.
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